Solid waste and waste water management remains to be a pertinent environmental problem in the Philippines. Rapid population growth, urbanization and consumption have resulted in a huge waste management challenge in the country.
Solid waste generated per year is estimated at 13.48 million tons in 2010 and this is expected to increase to 16.63 million tons in 2020 (Environmental Management Bureau (EMB), Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), December 2015).
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) comes from residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial sources. 45% of MSW comes from the residential sources, which includes kitchen scraps, yard waste, paper and cardboards, glass bottles, plastic containers and sando bags, foils, soiled tissues and diapers, and special wastes such as containers of household cleaning agents, batteries and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Commercial sources are second at 21% which include commercial establishments. Institutional sources which account for 12.1% of total MSW include government offices, education and medical institutions. Finally, the remaining 4.1% come from industrial and manufacturing sector.
Improper solid waste management has implications both on climate change adaptation and mitigation. Poor waste management practices, which include open burning, dumping in creeks and water bodies, and non-segregation of waste have contributed to GHG emissions. Piling of biodegradable waste in landfills and operation of open & uncontrolled dumpsites leads to GHG emissions.
Meanwhile, according to the Philippine Environment Monitor or PEM (World Bank, 2001) and the EMB 2001-2005 National Water Quality Status Report (EMB, 2006), there are three main sources of pollution in wastewater: domestic wastewater discharges or municipal waste, agricultural wastewater, and industrial wastewater. Below table shows the breakdown of sources based on the PEM and EMB reports.
Furthermore, according to a study conducted by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) in 1999, approximately 2,000 cubic meters of solvent wastes, 22,000 tons of heavy metals, infectious wastes, biological sludge, lubricants, and intractable wastes, as well as 25 million cubic meter of acid/alkaline liquid wastes are improperly disposed of annually in the Metro Manila area alone (UNIDO, 1999).
|The title of the policy or action||Policy or action name||e.g. Improved segregation of solid waste: composting|
|Type of policy or action||The type of policy or action, such as those presented in Table 1, or other categories of policies or actions that may be more relevant||e.g. Implementation using new technologies to reduce emissions|
|Description of specific interventions||The specific intervention(s) carried out as part of the policy or action||e.g. Implementation RA No, 9003|
|The status of the policy or action||The specific intervention(s) carried out as part of the policy or action||e.g. ☒ Implemented ☐Planned|
|Date of implementation||The date the policy or action comes into effect (not the date that any supporting legislation is enacted)||e.g. 2005|
|Date of Completion (if applicable)||If applicable, the date the policy or action ceases, such as the date a tax is no longer levied or the end date of an incentive scheme with a limited duration (not the date that the policy/action no longer has an impact on GHG emissions)||e.g. 2030|
|Implementing entity or entities||Which entity or entities implement(s) the policy or action, including the role of various local, subnational, national, international, or any other entities||e.g. SWMD, private investors, LGUs, others|
|Objective(s) of the policy or action||The intended effects(s) or benefit(s) the policy or action intends to achieve (for example, the purpose stated in the legislation or regulation)||e.g. Option includes increasing the percentage of biodegradable waste that is composted from 10% in 2015 to 50% in 2050. Increased composting results in additional biodegradable waste diversion from landfills, reducingCH4 emissions and overall disposal requirements;|
|Geographic coverage||The jurisdiction or geographic area where the policy or action is implemented or enforced, which may be more limited than all the jurisdictions where the policy or action has an impact||e.g. National, sub-national|
|Primary sectors, subsectors, and emission sources/sink categories targeted||Which sectors, subsectors, and source/sink categories are targeted, using sectors and subsectors from the most recent IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories or other sector classifications||e.g. Waste; sub-sectors.; Solid waste; source CH4 Emissions from solid waste disposal sites, CH4|
|Greenhouse gases targeted (if applicable)||"If applicable, which greenhouse gases the policy or action aims to control, which may be more limited than the set of greenhouse gases that the policy or action affects"||e.g. CH4, N2O|
|Other related policies or actions||Other policies or actions that may interact with the policy or action assessed.||e.g. NREP, RPS|
|Intended level of mitigation to be achieved and/or target level of other indicators (if applicable)||If relevant and available, the total emissions and removals from the sources and sinks targeted; the target amount of emissions to be reduced or removals to be enhanced as a result of the policy or action, both annually and cumulatively over the life of the policy or action (or by a stated date); and/or the target level of key indicators||e.g. Cumulative mitigation potential for the period (2000-2030) is 10.56 million tons CO2e|
|Title of establishing legislation, regulations, or other founding documents||The name(s) of legislation1. or regulations authorizing or establishing the policy or action (or other founding documents if there is no legislative basis)||e.g. RA No. 9003|
|Measurement/Monitoring, reporting, and verification procedures||References to any measurement, reporting, and verification procedures associated with implementing the policy or action|
|Enforcement Mechanisms||Any enforcement or compliance procedures, such as penalties for noncompliance||e.g. Enforcement of RA. No. 9003|
|Reference to relevant guidance documents||Information to allow practitioners and other interested parties to
access any guidance documents related to the policy or action (for
example, through websites)||e.g. https://www.denr.gov.ph/|
|The broader context/ significance of the policy or action||Broader context for understanding the policy or action, such as other
policies or actions that the policy/action replaces, or the political
context of the policy/action||e.g. Ecological solid waste Management implemented towards climate change mitigation|
|Outline of non-GHG effects or co-benefits of the policy or action ||Any anticipated benefits other than GHG mitigation, such as energy
security, improved air quality, health benefits, or increased jobs, and
any relevant target indicators||e.g. Increased competitiveness, improved air quality, health benefits|
|Other relevant information||Any other relevant information|