Solid waste and waste water management remains to be a pertinent environmental problem in the Philippines. Rapid population growth, urbanization and consumption have resulted in a huge waste management challenge in the country.
Solid waste generated per year is estimated at 13.48 million tons in 2010 and this is expected to increase to 16.63 million tons in 2020 (Environmental Management Bureau (EMB), Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), December 2015).
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) comes from residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial sources. 45% of MSW comes from the residential sources, which includes kitchen scraps, yard waste, paper and cardboards, glass bottles, plastic containers and sando bags, foils, soiled tissues and diapers, and special wastes such as containers of household cleaning agents, batteries and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Commercial sources are second at 21% which include commercial establishments. Institutional sources which account for 12.1% of total MSW include government offices, education and medical institutions. Finally, the remaining 4.1% come from industrial and manufacturing sector.
Improper solid waste management has implications both on climate change adaptation and mitigation. Poor waste management practices, which include open burning, dumping in creeks and water bodies, and non-segregation of waste have contributed to GHG emissions. Piling of biodegradable waste in landfills and operation of open & uncontrolled dumpsites leads to GHG emissions.
Meanwhile, according to the Philippine Environment Monitor or PEM (World Bank, 2001) and the EMB 2001-2005 National Water Quality Status Report (EMB, 2006), there are three main sources of pollution in wastewater: domestic wastewater discharges or municipal waste, agricultural wastewater, and industrial wastewater. Below table shows the breakdown of sources based on the PEM and EMB reports.
Furthermore, according to a study conducted by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) in 1999, approximately 2,000 cubic meters of solvent wastes, 22,000 tons of heavy metals, infectious wastes, biological sludge, lubricants, and intractable wastes, as well as 25 million cubic meter of acid/alkaline liquid wastes are improperly disposed of annually in the Metro Manila area alone (UNIDO, 1999).
For additional information on the Sectoral Climate Change Mitigation Action for the Waste sector, please contact Department of Environment and Natural Resources - Climate Change Services at firstname.lastname@example.org.