Impacts of Extreme Weather Events to Ecological Stability
Climate change and variability, as manifested by warming temperature and delayed onset of rainy season, affect the flowering and fruit bearing of some trees. Temperature rises alter the preferred habitat of some plants and wildlife. Between 1900 and 2013 data of PAGASA, forest ecosystems in Luzon have been visited by more than 500 to a few thousand typhoons that conceivably caused damage to plants and animals and altered the ecosystem’s structure, composition and function.
In contrast, forests in river basins of Mindanao and the Visayas have been visited by far less typhoons during the same period. Between 2011 and 2040, projections of PAGASA show that around 1.8 M has. of forests in all river basins would likely experience at least 2m/s maximum wind velocity.
Observed climate change impacts on coastal systems include (i) damage to property (e.g. hotels, resorts, houses and boat) during typhoon or low pressure area; (ii) coral bleaching and increasing number of crown-of-thorns starfish; (iii) impacts to livelihood and tourism in vulnerable coastal areas; (iv) a number of houses relocated because of coastal erosion; (v) houses, boats and trees washed out during typhoons; (vi) decrease in fish catch during typhoons; (vii) mangrove areas, coral reefs and marine protected area and beaches also found at risk due to climate change; (viii) storm surge inundation and (ix) loss of lives.